Surah Al-Hashr (59): Read Online and Download - English Translation

This page contains all verses of surah Al-Hashr in addition to Interpretation of all verses by Maarif-ul-Quran (Mufti Muhammad Shafi). In the first part you can read surah الحشر ordered in pages exactly as it is present in the Quran. To read an interpretation of a verse click on its number.

Information About Surah Al-Hashr

Surah Al-Hashr
سُورَةُ الحَشۡرِ
Page 545 (Verses from 1 to 3)

Tafsir of Surah Al-Hashr (Maarif-ul-Quran: Mufti Muhammad Shafi)

English Translation

Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

English Transliteration

Sabbaha lillahi ma fee alssamawati wama fee alardi wahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu


Sequencing of Surahs

The preceding Surah had condemned the close friendship developed by the hypocrites with the Jews. The present Surah describes the punishment faced by the Jews in this world in the form of exile and in the Hereafter in the form of grievous torment.

Cause of Revelation

The story of their banishment from Madinah is that when the Messeger of Allah ﷺ migrated to Madinah, he concluded a peace treaty with the Jews. Banu Nadir, one of the Jew tribes living around Madinah, were one of the three signatories. The latter tribe lived about two miles away from Madinah. Once it happened that ` Amr Ibn 'Umayyah Damuri killed two persons by mistake. According to Law, the Muslims jointly had to settle the blood-wit. The Holy Prophet ﷺ first collected money from the Muslims for this purpose. Then he decided to collect money from the Jews as well in terms of the treaty he already had with them. The Holy Prophet ﷺ visited the tribe of Banu Nadir for this purpose. Before his arrival, they conspired to put an end to his life. When he reached there, they made him sit against a wall and said to him that they were going to gather the blood money. In the meanwhile, they secretly plotted that someone should climb the particular wall in the shade of which the Holy Prophet ﷺ was sitting and drop a rock on him and kill him. But before the Jews could execute their sinister plan, Allah revealed to him in time about their plot and conspiracy. The Holy Prophet ﷺ instantly left the place, returned to Madinah and sent a message to Banu Nadir that they have betrayed the treaty. Therefore, they are given ten days in which to leave the town and go into exile, and were warned that if they would not meet the deadline, they might be killed at sight. They decided to leave, but ` Abdullah Ibn 'Ubayy prevented them. He said that they did not have to leave because he had an army of two thousand men who were willing to lay down their lives to protect the Jewish lives. It is stated in Ruh-ul-Ma` ani on the authority of Ibn Ishaq that along with ` Abdullah were Wadi'ah Ibn Malik, Suwaid and Ra'ish. The Jews fell into the trap of the three and sent a message to the Holy Prophet that they would not leave. As a result, he together with the noble Companions ؓ marched on that tribe. The Jews locked themselves up in the fortresses, but the hypocrites, being essentially cowards, hid themselves. The Holy Prophet ﷺ laid a siege to the Jewish fortresses. Some of their date palms were felled and others were burnt down. Eventually, they agreed to go into exile. So, the Holy Prophet ﷺ forced them to evacuate and abandon their fortresses and, in kindness, allowed to take with them enough provisions, whatever their cavalry and camelry could carry except arms and weapons, which, they were told, would be confiscated. Some of them went to Syria, while others went to Khaibar. On account of their greed, they carried with them even beams, rafters, woods and the doors of their houses. This incident took place after the battle of Badr in RabI'-ul Awwal 4 AH. Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ ، during his caliphate, sent them away to Syria to live with the rest of the Jews. The two banishments go under the names of the 'first banishment' and the 'second banishment'. [ Zad-ul-Ma’ ad ].

The Characteristics of Surah AI-Hashr and the History of Banu Nadir

The entire Surah Al-Hashr was revealed in connection with Bani Nadir [ Ibn Ishaq ]. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas ؓ used to call this Surah, Surah Banff Nadir. [ Ibn Kathir ]. Bani Nadir were the descendents of the Holy Prophet Harun ﷺ . Their forefathers were scholars of Torah, which contained a full description of the Last Prophet ﷺ such as his physical features, his signs of Prophet-hood and his migration to Yathrib (Madinah). This tribe was under the impression that the Last Prophet ﷺ would be one of the descendents of Holy Prophet Harun (علیہ السلام) and they would have the pleasure of being in his company. For this reason, they migrated from Syria and settled in Yathrib. Some of the contemporaries of the Holy Prophet ﷺ were also scholars of the Torah, who saw his physical features and other signs of Prophet-hood and recognized him as the Final Messenger but, as they thought that he would be one of the descendents of Harun they were disappointed when he was raised among the descendents of Ismail (علیہ السلام) . They were jealous and, on account of their jealousy, they were inhibited from embracing the Faith. But in their heart of hearts they knew that Sayyidna Muhammad ﷺ was the Final Messenger of Allah. When, in the battle of Badr, they saw the amazing victory of the Muslims and the humiliating defeat of the pagan Quraish, their degree of certainty was somewhat augmented. They even expressed their amazement. But distinguishing between truth and falsehood on the basis, measurement, or standard of the apparent victory and defeat is a weak yardstick. As a result, when in the battle of Uhud, Muslims initially suffered a temporary setback and some of the Companions ؓ were martyred, their certainty was shaken. After that they started conspiring with the pagan Arabs.

When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ migrated to Madinah, as stated earlier, he with his political sagacity felt his first task was to enter into a peace treaty with the Jews of Madinah and other neighbouring Jewish tribes, stipulating that he would not fight them and they would not fight him, nor would they aid and abet those who take up arms against the Muslims, and if the Jews were attacked, the Muslims would assist them. There were many other clauses in the peace accord, the details of which are available in 'Sirah of Ibn Hisham'. All the Jewish tribes, including Banu Nadir, had their area, strong fortresses and orchards at a distance of 3.2 kilometers from Madinah.

Up to the point of the battle of 'Uhud, they apparently kept to the terms of the treaty. But after that battle, they betrayed the treaty and started conspiring secretly, in that a leader of Banu Nadir, Ka'b Ibn Ashraf, went to Makkah with a caravan of forty Jewish members to curry favour with the pagan Quraish who were anxious to avenge the defeat of the battle of Badr, and had gone to the battle of 'Uhud for that reason but were eventually defeated in the latter battle as well. The defeated men returned and the Jews met them. They conspired and agreed to wage a war against the Messenger of Allah and the Muslims. Ka'b Ibn Ashraf with his forty Jewish members and Abu Sufyan with his forty members of pagan Quraish entered the Sacred Mosque and, holding on the curtain of the House of Allah, pledged that they would jointly fight the Muslims and annihilate them.

When, after this pledge, Ka'b Ibn Ashraf returned to Madinah, Jibra'il (علیہ السلام) descended and informed the Messenger of Allah ﷺ about the entire episode and the details of the pledge. In the meantime, the Holy Prophet ﷺ issued the command to kill Ka'b Ibn Ashraf. A noble Companion Muhammad Ibn Maslamah killed him.

Subsequently, Banu Nadir hatched many different plots to harm the Messenger of Allah ﷺ ، one of which was, as reported earlier, their plot to kill him. The Holy Prophet ﷺ ، after collecting blood money from the Muslims in a particular case of murder, decided to collect money from the Jews in terms of the treaty that was concluded between himself ﷺ ، the tribes of Banu Nadir, Banu Qainuqa` and Banu Quraizah. Before his arrival, they planned to kill him, as detailed above. The person who was entrusted with the task of throwing a rock on the head of the Holy Prophet ﷺ was a Jew ` Umar Ibn Jahhash by name who had volunteered himself for the task. Had it not been for the revelatory information the Holy Prophet ﷺ ; received from Allah, their plot would have worked. But Allah protected His Messenger ﷺ and the conspiracy was thus thwarted and their plan failed.

A Lesson

It is a remarkable co-incidence that subsequently the entire Banu Nadir clan was expelled from Madinah except for two persons who embraced the Islamic Faith and were spared: One of them was ` Umar Ibn Jahhash and the other was his paternal uncle Yamin Ibn ` Amr Ibn Ka'b. [ Ibn Kathir ].

The Story of ` Amr Ibn Umayyah Damuri

Under the rubric of 'cause of revelation' above, reference was made to the incident that ` Amr Ibn Umayyah Damuri accidentally killed two men. The Muslims as well as the Jews had to jointly settle the blood-wit in terms of the treaty existing between them. The Holy Prophet ﷺ collected money from the Muslims for this purpose. Then he decided to collect money from the Jews. The Holy Prophet ﷺ visited the tribe of Banu Nadir in their area for this purpose. Ibn Kathir writes that the enemy plans to harm the Muslims are many and long-drawn-out. One famous incident in Islamic history is that of Bi'r Ma` unah: Some of the hypocrites and the non-believers requested the Messenger of Allah ﷺ to send a band of the noble Companions ؓ to preach the religion of Islam. He dispatched about seventy Companions ؓ for the purpose. Later on it was discovered that this was a mere conspiracy. The plan was to surround them and kill them, in which they succeeded. Of the seventy Muslims, only ` Amr Ibn Umayyah Damuri managed to escape. He had seen and experienced the dishonesty and treachery of the non-believers, and how they mercilessly massacred sixty-nine of his brethren. In the circumstances, one can imagine how his emotions would have been against the enemies. Co-incidentally, when he was returning to Madinah he encountered two non-believers and killed them. Later on it was discovered that the two men killed were members of Bani ` Amir, a tribe which was an ally of the Holy Prophet ﷺ . Banu Nadir was also an ally of Bani ` Amir tribe.

The agreements of Muslim politicians were not like the political agreements of today in which every effort is made at the very beginning to find out ways to escape or violate it. In the case of the Holy Prophet ﷺ and the early sincere Muslims, whatever the tongue uttered or the pen wrote was treated as part of religion and Divine law and binding. When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ learnt about ` Amr Ibn 'Umayyah Damrui's error of judgment, he decided to pay the blood-wit, in terms of the sacred law of Shari’ ah, for the two men killed. In this matter, he first collected money from the Muslims and then he had to go to Banu Nadir for collection. [ Ibn Kathir ]

Tolerance and Human Rights in Islam: A Model for Present-day Politicians

There are many lessons in the incidents cited above for the heralds of human rights, and for the political leaders and the big powers who talk highly about them and are deemed as 'Champions of Human Rights'. Let us look at the case of Banu Nadir: They unceasingly were involved in conspiracies, endlessly behaved treacherously and continuously plotted to kill the Messenger of Allah ﷺ . Would the present-day political leaders or heads of governments tolerate all this? How would they treat them? Nowadays, the opponents are killed even by sprinkling petrol on them or in some other execution style. There is no need for political leadership or government for that purpose. A few wicked hooligans gather together and carry out the executions. The official wrath and anger manifest itself much more grievously.

But here we are describing the government of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ : Even when the enemy conspiracies and treacheries reached the peak, no massacre was contemplated. No thought of usurping their property and wealth was ever considered. In fact, the following humane punitive measures were taken:

[ 1] They were allowed to take all their wealth with them, and were ordered only to evacuate the town.

[ 2] To do this, they were given ten days, so that they might be able to take their things comfortably and transfer themselves to some other place. When they did not comply, it became necessary to take a sterner measure at national level.

[ 3] Some trees were though cut down and others were burned down, but even at that stage, no edict was issued to burn down their fortresses or attack them and kill them on a large scale.

[ 4] When they expressed that it was in their best interests to go into exile, they were given the choice that each man could take with him as much provisions as his camel could carry. As a result, they carried their hooks, latches, doors, planks, beams and rafters.

[ 5] No Muslim ever frowned upon any of the persons transferring his stuff. They took their things and moved out peacefully and safely.

The Holy Prophet ﷺ showed this kindness to them when they were completely subdued and he was in complete command of the situation. He had the power to fully avenge their treachery, dishonesty and conspiracy. But he did not do it. This behavior of the Holy Prophet ﷺ corresponds to his behavior with the pagans of Makkah when he entered the city after the triumph.

Let us now explain some expressions of these verses in the background of these events.

English Translation

It is He who expelled the ones who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture from their homes at the first gathering. You did not think they would leave, and they thought that their fortresses would protect them from Allah; but [the decree of] Allah came upon them from where they had not expected, and He cast terror into their hearts [so] they destroyed their houses by their [own] hands and the hands of the believers. So take warning, O people of vision.

English Transliteration

Huwa allathee akhraja allatheena kafaroo min ahli alkitabi min diyarihim liawwali alhashri ma thanantum an yakhrujoo wathannoo annahum maniAAatuhum husoonuhum mina Allahi faatahumu Allahu min haythu lam yahtasiboo waqathafa fee quloobihimu alrruAAba yukhriboona buyootahum biaydeehim waaydee almumineena faiAAtabiroo ya olee alabsari

(1) The original word used in the text is 'hashr' which means 'gathering' or 'mustering' and after which this Surah is named. In the present context, it may be interpreted in two different ways. One, that it refers to the gathering of the Muslims who ordered the Jews to leave Madinah due to their constant conspiracies and breaches of the treaty they had with the Muslims. According to this interpretation, the verse means that the Jews of Bani Nadir were made to leave the city at the first gathering of the Muslims without fighting and without any further attempt to attack them. The second interpretation is that it refers to the gathering of the Jews for the purpose of emigration. In this case the verse indicates that it was their first exile before which they did not face such a situation. It has another subtle indication to the fact that this was their first exile which will be followed by another one, i.e. the exile faced by the Jews in the days of Sayyidna ` Umar . (Muhammad Taqi Usmani)

لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ‌ ( the time of the first gathering...59:2). The word hashr means 'to rise'. One reason for referring to it as the 'first mustering' is given by Maulana Thanawi (رح) in his Tafsir. They were settled at one place since ancient times. This event of banishment took place for the first time in their life. The second reason could be that all the non-Muslims of the Arabian peninsula would have to be evacuated in future, so that the peninsula might become a strong fortress of Islam. As a result, a second banishment was to take place at some later time. This happened during the caliphate of ` Umar ؓ ، the Holy Prophet's Second Successor. He banished all the Jews who had settled in Khaibar. He ordered all the Jews to leave the Arabian peninsula. From this point of view, Banu Nadir's banishment is the 'first banishment' and the 'second banishment' took place in the time of Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ .

فَأَتَاهُمُ اللَّـهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا (...But Allah came to them from where they did not expect... 59:2). The phrase 'Allah came' means 'the command of Allah and His obedient angels came'.

يُخْرِ‌بُونَ بُيُوتَهُم بِأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَيْدِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (...they were spoiling their homes with their own hands and with the hands of the believers....59:2) Banu Nadir had spoiled their houses by removing their doors and shutters. 'Spoiling their homes with the hands of the believers' means that when the Jews locked themselves up in their fortresses, the Muslims destroyed the trees and homes outside the fortresses to make them surrender.

English Translation

And if not that Allah had decreed for them evacuation, He would have punished them in [this] world, and for them in the Hereafter is the punishment of the Fire.

English Transliteration

Walawla an kataba Allahu AAalayhimu aljalaa laAAaththabahum fee alddunya walahum fee alakhirati AAathabu alnnari