Surah Al-Fath (48): Read Online and Download - English Translation

This page contains all verses of surah Al-Fath in addition to Interpretation of all verses by Maarif-ul-Quran (Mufti Muhammad Shafi). In the first part you can read surah الفتح ordered in pages exactly as it is present in the Quran. To read an interpretation of a verse click on its number.

Information About Surah Al-Fath

Surah Al-Fath
سُورَةُ الفَتۡحِ
Page 511 (Verses from 1 to 9)

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُۥ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَٰطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا وَيَنصُرَكَ ٱللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ ٱلسَّكِينَةَ فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوٓا۟ إِيمَٰنًا مَّعَ إِيمَٰنِهِمْ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا لِّيُدْخِلَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَٰتِ جَنَّٰتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا وَيُعَذِّبَ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ وَٱلْمُنَٰفِقَٰتِ وَٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَٱلْمُشْرِكَٰتِ ٱلظَّآنِّينَ بِٱللَّهِ ظَنَّ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۖ وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيرًا وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَٰكَ شَٰهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا لِّتُؤْمِنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا

Listen to Surah Al-Fath (Arabic and English translation)

Tafsir of Surah Al-Fath (Maarif-ul-Quran: Mufti Muhammad Shafi)

English Translation

Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest

English Transliteration

Inna fatahna laka fathan mubeenan

Preliminary Remarks

According to the consensus of scholarly opinion of Sahabah (Companions ؓ of the Holy Prophet ﷺ), Tabi` in (Pupils of Sahabah) and the leading authorities on Qur'anic commentary, the Surah was revealed when, after signing the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Holy Prophet ﷺ was on his way back to Madinah, in the 6th year of Hijrah in the month of Dhul-Qa` dah. In other words, the Holy Prophet ﷺ with a party of his Companions ؓ set out for Makkah with the intention of performing the ` Umrah. When he approached the sanctuary of Makkah he halted at a place called Hudaibiyah.

The Quraish, however, debarred his entry into Makkah. Later they were willing to compromise that he must go back home that year and make up for the missed ` Umrah the following year. Many companions, especially Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ ، were greatly upset but the Holy Prophet ﷺ accepted it under Divine direction because he felt that this would pave the way to Muslim success. The details are set out later in the Surah. When the Holy Prophet ﷺ put off his Ihram, this Surah was revealed on his return journey from Hudaibiyah in which it is pointed out that his vision is true which will most certainly be fulfilled at the appropriate time. But this is not the right time for it. It will happen after the conquest of Makkah. The Treaty of Hudaibiyah in this Surah is described as "an open victory" because this Treaty was in fact the forerunner of the conquest of Makkah. Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn Masud ؓ and some other Companions say "you think the conquest of Makkah is 'Victory' but we regard "The very Treaty of Hudaibiyah as the real 'Victory'. Likewise Sayyidna Jabir ؓ says "We think the Treaty of Hudaibiyah is 'Victory'. Bara' Ibn ` Azib says "You think 'Victory' refers to the conquest of Makkah. No doubt, it does, but we think the Pledge of Ridwan on the occasion of Hudaibiyah is the real 'Victory' where the Companions ؓ [ some 1400] were asked by the Holy Prophet ﷺ under an acacia tree to declare on solemn oath that they would stand by him at all costs and would fight under his banner to the bitter end. The Pledge of Jihad is referred to later on in this Surah. (Ibn Kathir) As mentioned earlier, this Surah was revealed on the occasion of Hudaibiyah, and since some parts of this incident are referred to in this Surah, it seems pertinent to first give details of this incident. Tafsir Ibn Kathir elaborates on the event and gives many small details. Tafsir Mazhari develops it even more elaborately. He has, on this occasion, written about fourteen pages, narrating the story from the beginning to the end with reference to authentic collections of Hadith. The narrative comprises many miracles, pieces of advice, and educational, religious and political points of wisdom. We intend to give the details of those parts of the narrative which are referred to in the Surah itself, or are profoundly relevant to the Surah, so that it may facilitate the understanding of those verses which are related to the incident. The details given below are mainly adopted from Tafsir Mazhari, and reference is made to other commentaries from where other details are taken.

The Event of Hudaibiyah:

Hudaibiyah is a plain situated outside Makkah on the way to Jeddah which is very close to the boundaries of Haram. It is now called Shumaisiyy. This is the site where the incident took place.

Part [ 1]: The Prophet's (علیہم السلام) Vision

It is reported by Ibn Jarir, ` Abd Ibn Humaid, Baihaqi, and others that the Holy Prophet ﷺ saw in a dream in Madinah that he had gone to Makkah with his Companions, entered it peacefully and performed the ` umrah (shorter pilgrimage). He and his Companions put off their pilgrim-garb and, according to the rule, some had their heads shaven and others had their hair cut short. The Holy Prophet ﷺ then entered the House of Allah, and the key of the House fell into his hand. This part of the event is referred to later on in this Surah [ 48:27]. The dream of the Prophets ﷺ is not a mere dream or fiction. It is a Divine revelation, acting upon which is necessary. Therefore, this vision of the Holy Prophet ﷺ was not merely a dream, but a Divine inspiration which he had to strictly obey and follow. However, no time or date was specified for this. In fact, this vision was to be fulfilled at the time of the conquest of Makkah. But when the Holy Prophet ﷺ narrated this vision to his companions, they in their enthusiasm to visit Makkah and perform the tawaf (circumambulation) of the House, started preparations forthwith. When a party of the Companions was in full readiness to depart, the Holy Prophet ﷺ too made up his mind to accomplish his vision, since no time or date was specified, it is possible, he thought, that this purpose could be achieved instantly (Bayan-ul-Q, citing from Rah-u1-Ma’ ani).

Part [ 2]: The Prophet ﷺ invites his Companions and Bedouins to Join him: Some refused

It is reported on the authority of Ibn Said and others that when the Holy Prophet ﷺ and his Companions made up their mind to perform ` umrah, the Holy Prophet ﷺ had the apprehension that the pagans of Makkah might hinder them from performing ` umrah, and it was possible also that an armed clash might ensue. Therefore, he invited people from the neighbouring villages to join him for the pilgrimage. Many of the village bedouins refused to join him claiming that Muhammad ﷺ and his Companions wanted to push them into the jaws of death. They said that Muhammad and his Companions wanted to get them into an armed clash with Makkans who were superior to them in terms of weapons and power. They felt that as a result of this superiority, the Muslims would not come back alive (Mazhari).

Part [ 3]: Setting out for Makkah

According to the versions of Imam Ahmad, Bukhari, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i رحمۃ اللہ علیہم and others the Holy Prophet ﷺ before setting out for the journey, took a bath, put on his new clothes and mounted his camel Qaswa'. He was accompanied by his blessed wife 'Umm Salamah ؓ . A large number of the Muhajirin, Ansar and the village folks was with him. This constituted, according to most versions, 1400 people altogether. No one doubted that Makkah will be conquered on that day on account of the Holy Prophet's ﷺ vision, whereas they did not have any weapons except swords. The Holy Prophet ﷺ and his Companions ؓ set out for this journey on Monday at the beginning of Dhul-Qa'dah. He reached Dhul-Hulaifah and donned the pilgrim-robe with the intention of ` Umrah (Shorterned from Mazhari).

Part [ 4]: Preparing for Confrontation with Makkans

When the people of Makkah received news about the Prophet's ﷺ journey to Makkah with a large number of his Companions, they gathered together, and expressed their concern that if Muhammad was allowed entry into Makkah, the entire Arabia would be under the impression that the Makkans were subdued by him, while several battles had been fought between them and Muhammad. As such, they were not willing to allow him entry into the city. Thus they dispatched an advance cavalry towards Kura'-ul-Ghamim under the command of Khalid Ibn Walid [ who until then was not a Muslim ] to intercept him. The neighboring villagers were also attached to the cavalry, and the tribe of Banu Thaqif from Ta'if joined them as well. They pitched their tents in a place called Baldah. They pledged to debar the Holy Prophet ﷺ from entering into Makkah and to declare war against him.

A Strange and Simple Network of Communication

The enemies set up a network of communication from Baldah to the place where the Holy Prophet ﷺ had reached. They placed a few men on the top of each mountain to observe the movement, activity and position of the Holy Prophet ﷺ and inform the people on the adjacent mountain in a loud voice, they in turn relayed the message to the people on the next mountain, they would then convey the information to the third mountain, and so on. In this way they communicated the details of the Holy prophet's activities to the people of Baldah within a few minutes.

The Informants of Holy Prophet ﷺ

The Holy Prophet ﷺ dispatched Bishr Ibn Sufyan to Makkah in advance as a secret informer, so that he may secretly observe the activities and movements of the Quraish and keep him fully informed of their intentions and activities. When he returned from Makkah, he informed the Holy Prophet ﷺ that the Makkans were preparing for an all-out war. The Holy Prophet ﷺ expressed his regret that several wars had already weakened the strength of Quraish, and yet they would not give up fighting. The Prophet ﷺ said: "This was an ideal opportunity for them to leave me, and the other Arabs alone. If these Arabs had vanquished me, they would have accomplished their objective without any pain; and if I had vanquished them, one of two things could have happened - either they would have embraced Islam or if they intended to fight me they would have braced themselves to face me. But nobody knows what is wrong with them! By Him who has sent me with His commands, I shall never cease to fight them until my neck is separated from the rest of my body."

Part [ 5]: The Camel of the Holy Prophet ﷺ Refuses to Move

After that the Holy Prophet ﷺ gathered the people and delivered a sermon in which he consulted them whether they should start the fight against the enemies then and there, or press forward and make forced entry into Makkah, and "if they debar us we shall fight them." Sayyidna Abu Bakr and other companions ؓ said, "You have come out on a peaceful mission with the intention of visiting the House of Allah, not with the belligerent intention of fighting. Therefore, adhere to your peaceful intention. However, if anyone bars us from entering Makkah, then we shall fight."Sayyidna Miqdad Ibn Aswad رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ stood up and said: "0 Allah's Messenger! We are not like the children of Israel who would say فَاذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَرَ‌بُّكَ فَقَاتِلَا إِنَّا هَاهُنَا قَاعِدُونَ - { 5:24} 'So go, you and your Lord, and fight. As for us, we are sitting here'. We shall fight with you at all costs." Having seen the Companions' ؓ determination, Allah's Messenger ﷺ responded that they should press forward in the direction of Makkah in the name of Allah. When the Holy Prophet ﷺ approached the Holy City, and Khalid Ibn Walid and his cavalry noticed them moving forward in the direction of qiblah, he arrayed his army into regiments and stood up there like adamantine walls. Allah's Messenger ﷺ appointed ` Abbad Ibn Bishr ؓ as the commander of a unit that was arrayed in opposition, to Khalid Ibn Walid. In the meanwhile it was time for Zuhr Salah. Sayyidna Bilal ؓ called the adhan, and the Holy Prophet ﷺ led the congregation in prayer. Khalid and his cavalry looked on. Later on Khalid Ibn Walid said: "We lost a golden opportunity to wipe them out whilst they were praying. It does not matter, wait for another time, because soon they will be praying again." But in the meantime Jibra'il (علیہ السلام) brought down the injunction of Salat-ul-Khawf. Having made Allah's Messenger ﷺ aware of their intentions, he was shown how the army should be divided into two groups in times of danger. Allah's Messenger ﷺ followed the direction of the Qur'an. Each group performed the prayer in alternation. (When one group prayed, it was guarded and protected by the armed regiment who remained on the alert for a possible attack by the enemy. It took its turn when the praying group had finished.)

Part [ 6]: A Miracle at Hudaibiyah

When Allah's Messenger ﷺ ، was nearing Hudaibiyah, the forelegs of his she-camel (named Qaswa) slipped and it sat down. The Companions ؓ tried to urge it up, but in vain. The Companions thought that Qaswa was enraged, but Allah's Messenger ﷺ said that it was no fault of Qaswa nor is it its usual habit to do this. In fact, it has been stopped by the same One who had blocked the men of elephant. [ Probably Allah's Messenger ﷺ by then had discerned that the time was not up for the fulfillment of his vision.] With this discernment, Allah's Messenger ﷺ declared: "By Him in whose hand is Muhammad's life, today I shall accept all the demands of the Quraish in which the Symbols sanctified by Allah are held in full esteem." Then he called out the she-camel and it stood up. Allah's Messenger' ﷺ moved away from the spot where Khalid Ibn Walid was staying, and stationed himself on the other side of Hudaibiyah where there was very little water. Khalid Ibn Walid and the people of Baldah had occupied the places where water was available in abundance. Here a miracle of Allah's Messenger ﷺ shown by Allah Ta` ala. At this place there was a well in which very little water trickled. He rinsed his mouth in it, and got one of his arrows pitched therein. As soon as this happened, its water bubbled almost up to the brim of the well. People on the upper side of the well drew water and quenched their thirst.

[ 7]: Negotiation with the Deputations of the People of Makkah

In this way all the Companions were satisfied and settled there, and started negotiations with the people of Makkah through their deputations. First, Budail Ibn Warqa' [ who later on embraced Islam ] along with his companions paid a visit to Allah's Messenger ﷺ and informed him, as a well-wisher, that the entire Makkah had come out in full force to confront him. They have occupied all the water spots. "They will never allow you to enter into Makkah." He said. Allah's Messenger ﷺ replied, "We have not come to fight anyone. However, if they block us from performing ` umrah, we will fight". Then he repeated what he had said to his spy Bishr: "Several wars have weakened the Quraish. If they wish, a peace treaty could be arranged for a specified period of time, so that they may peacefully prepare themselves. In the meantime they should leave us and the rest of the Arabs alone. If these Arabs vanquish me, they would have accomplished their objective without any pain; and if I vanquish them, and they started entering into the fold of Islam, then the Quraish will have two options: either they too will embrace Islam, or if they will intend to fight me, they will have braced themselves to face me. But if they refuse this, then I swear by Him who has sent me with His commands, I shall never cease to fight them until my neck is left separated from the rest of my body." Budail, saying that he will convey the message to the Quraish leaders, went back. When he returned to the Quraish and communicated the Holy Prophet's ﷺ response, some of them did not want to even hear him, and were in a fit of war, while others, like ` Urwah Ibn Masud, the leader of his tribe, advised them to at least hear him. Then when Budail conveyed the message of the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، ` Urwah said to the leaders of Quraish that Muhammad's suggestions were fair and satisfactory, and therefore, they should be accepted. He opted to negotiate and asked for their permission to confer with the Holy Prophet ﷺ with the aim of reaching an agreement of peace. Thus the second person to pay a visit to the Holy Prophet ﷺ in an attempt to negotiate was ` Urwah who said to the Holy Prophet ﷺ : "If you wipe out your own people, the Quraish, will it be good for you? Have you ever heard anyone destroying his own people?" Then there was a heated and protracted parleys between ` Urwah and the Companions ؓ ، and while this was going on, ` Urwah observed that when the Holy Prophet ﷺ performed his ablutions, his companions would not allow the water to fall on the ground but would rub it on their bodies and clothes. When the Holy Prophet ﷺ spoke, they would lower their voices. ` Urwah went back to the Quraish leaders, and described the whole scenario to them, adding that "I have been to the courts of the Caesar and Khosroes, and the Negus also, but by God, never have I seen any people so devoted to a king as are the Companions ؓ of Muhammad ﷺ to him. He is suggesting a correct proposal, and I suggest that you accept it." But the people replied that they could not accept it; "Muhammad must go back this year, and may come again the following year." When ` Urwah's suggestion was not accepted, he returned with his people. After him a person by the name of Jails Ibn ` Alqamah, the leader of the bedouins, visited the Holy Prophet ﷺ . He saw the Companions in pilgrim-robes with sacrificial animals. He too returned and explained to his people that these people had come to perform their ` Umrah in the House of Allah. "It is not proper in any way to debar them." The people did not pay heed to his suggestion either. He too went away back with his deputation. A fourth person arrived to confer with the Holy Prophet ﷺ and persuade him to give up his intention to enter Makkah. But the Holy Prophet ﷺ repeated the same reply to this deputation that he had made to Budail and ` Urwah. He went back to Quraish and communicated the Holy Prophet's ﷺ reply to them.

Part [ 8] : Sayyidna ` Uthman ؓ Despatched as a Special Envoy

Imam Baihaqi reports on the authority of ` Urwah Ibn Zubair that when Allah's Messenger ﷺ settled in Hudaibiyah, it unnerved the Quraish. He decided to send an envoy with the message that he had not come to fight, but to perform ` Umrah. Therefore, they should not block his way. He called upon Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ for this task. He said, "Quraish are my implacable enemy, because they are fully aware of my ardent support for Islam, and there is not a single member of my tribe in Makkah that will support me. As a result, I will not be able to change their mind. I propose the name of ` Uthman ؓ for this task. He is the most appropriate person who, because of his tribe, holds a special power and honour in the whole of Makkah." Allah's Messenger ﷺ accepted the proposal and sent off Sayyidna ` Uthman ؓ for the task. He also advised him to visit the socially and economically disabled Muslim men and women who were not able to migrate from Makkah and were suffering hardships. He was to console them that they should not be distressed. Soon, Allah willing, Makkah will be conquered and their difficulties will end. First, Sayyidna Uthman ؓ went to those people who had gathered in Baldah to block the way of the Holy Prophet ﷺ and confront him. He communicated to them the same message that was conveyed to them by Budail and Urwah. They replied that they had heard the message and that it was not acceptable. Having received their reply, he attempted to get into Makkah. Aban Ibn Said [ who later on embraced Islam ] met him and welcomed him warmly. He took him into his refuge and allowed him to convey his message anywhere in Makkah without any fear of hindrance. Then he gave his mount to Sayyidna ` Uthman رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ which he rode and entered Makkah, because his tribe Banu Said was eminently powerful.

Sayyidna ` Uthman ؓ met each one of the Quraish leaders, and conveyed the Holy Prophet's ﷺ message: "We have not come to fight, but to perform ` umrah. After completing the rites of pilgrimage we shall return home. Indeed, if the road is blocked, we shall fight. Quraish themselves have been debilitated by several wars. Therefore it would be to their advantage to leave us and other Arabs alone. Then we shall see who overpowers the other. If the Arabs overpower us, then their objective would be accomplished. If we overpower them, then too they will have a choice to fight at that stage. During this time they will have the opportunity to improve and preserve their strength." But they rejected his proposal. Then ` Uthman ؓ visited the helpless Muslims and conveyed to them the Holy Prophet's ﷺ message. This communication pleased them immensely, and they asked him to convey their salam to the Holy Prophet ﷺ . Having communicated the Holy Prophet's ﷺ message, the Makkans allowed Sayyidna ` Uthman ؓ to perform the tawaf of the House if he wished. But he refused saying he would not do that unless the Holy Prophet ﷺ would have first performed it. ` Uthman ؓ stayed in Makkah for three nights, and continued to invite the Quraish leaders to accept the Holy Prophet's ﷺ message.

Part [ 9]: Tension between Quraish and Muslims: Seventy Makkans Captured

In the meanwhile Quraish selected fifty men and asked them to be on the look-out for the Holy Prophet ﷺ . As soon as they find an opportunity, their task was to assassinate him. Whilst the men were on the look-out for the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، Muhammad Ibn Maslamah, the Holy Prophet's ﷺ body-guard, captured them and brought them to the Holy Prophet ﷺ . On the other hand, Sayyidna ` Uthman ؓ was already in Makkah and ten more Muslims joined him in the Holy City. When the Quraish heard that fifty of their men have been captured, they detained ` Uthman and other Muslims. A cavalry of Quraish marched towards the Muslim caravan and shot arrows and threw stones at them. One Companion - Ibn Zanim by name - was martyred. The Muslims captured ten of the Quraish horse-riders. In the meantime a rumour reached the Holy Prophet ﷺ that ` Uthman ؓ has been assassinated.

Part [ 10]: The Pledge of Ridwan

Having received this rumour, the Holy Prophet ﷺ gathered his Companions ؓ under an acacia tree and took a solemn pledge from them that they would fight the Quraish to the last breath of their lives. This pledge came to be known as bai` at-ur-Ridwan, which signified those lucky people who had taken the oath had obtained Allah's pleasure. This is referred to later on in the Surah. Authentic Prophetic Traditions speak eminently of the people who participated in this pledge. Since ` Uthman ؓ was on a mission to Makkah under the direction of the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، he was absent at the time of the solemn pledge. So the Holy Prophet ﷺ placed one of his own hands on the other hand of his and said, "This is ` Uthman's pledge." This illustrates the distinction of Sayyidna ` Uthman ؓ .

Part [ 11]: Peace Treaty at Hudaibiyah

A distinct event or episode of the scenario of Hudaibiyah is that through, the grace of Allah, the Quraish were overawed and subdued by the Muslims. As a result, they themselves were then willing to make peace. Thus they sent three of their men as representatives, namely, Suhail Ibn ` Amr, Huwaitib Ibn ` Abdul ` Uzza and Mikraz Ibn Hafs. (Later the first two of the representatives embraced Islam.) They apologised to the Holy Prophet ﷺ on behalf of their people. Suhail Ibn ` Amr said to the Holy Prophet "The report that ` Uthman and his companions have been killed is absolutely false. They are being sent to you. Set free our men you have captured." The Holy Prophet ﷺ set them free. It is recorded in Musnad of Ahmad and Sahih of Muslim on the authority of Sayyidna Anas ؓ that verse 24 of this Surah هُوَ الَّذِي كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ refers to this episode. Then Suhail and his deputation went to Quraish and described to them the amazing scene of bai'at-ur-Ridwan where the Sahabah showed their readiness to lay down their lives and willingness to make the supreme sacrifice. The opinion-makers of Quraish suggested that nothing would be better for them than they would compromise on Muslims' retiring that year without entering Makkah, but the Holy Prophet ﷺ and his Companions ؓ may visit Makkah the following year only for three days to perform ` Umrah. On that occasion they may slaughter the sacrificial animals and put off their pilgrim-robes, otherwise the impression created would be that attempts were made to block the Holy Prophet's ﷺ way, but he forced his entry into Makkah, which would be tantamount to a humiliating defeat for them. When Suhail arrived again with message, the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, "It seems that Quraish has decided to make peace. That is why they have sent Suhail again. "The Holy Prophet ﷺ sat up cross-legged. Two of his Companions, ` Abbd Ibn Bishr and Salamah, ؓ armed themselves with weapons and stood on his sides to guard him. Suhail came, whilst sitting courteously in front of him, delivered the message of Quraish. The Companions ؓ generally were not happy to put off the pilgrim-garb without performing ` Umrah. They spoke harshly to Suhail - the voices sometimes became loud and at other times low. ` Abbad Ibn Bishr reprimanded Suhail for raising his voice in the presence of the Holy Prophet ﷺ . After heated and protracted parleys, the Holy Prophet ﷺ agreed to enter into Peace Treaty. Suhail wanted to have the Peace Treaty reduced to writing. The Holy Prophet ﷺ called Sayyidna ` Ali رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ and dictated to him to write the words, بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ الرَّ‌حِيمِ bismil- lahir-rahmanir-rahim. Suhail objected to this - saying that the words rahman and rahim do not exist in our idiom. He said they should write the words that used to be written before, that is, بِاسمِکَ اَللّٰھُمَّ bismika- allahumma. The Holy Prophet ﷺ agreed to this and asked Sayyidna ` Ali ؓ to write "This is the Peace Treaty into which Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah entered." Suhail objected to this as well, and argued that they did not recognise him as the 'Messenger of Allah'. If they had, they would never have prevented him from visiting Allah's House. There should be no such expression in the Treaty that would be in defiance of any party's belief system. Therefore, it should read Muhammad, the son of ` Abdullh. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ granted this and dictated to Sayyidna ` Ali ؓ to erase the words, 'the Messenger of Allah' and replace it with 'the Son of ` Abdullah.' Sayyidna ` Ali ؓ ، despite being an embodiment of obedience, said he could not erase the attributive title rasul [ Messenger ] of Allah from his name. Sayyidna ` Usaid Ibn Hudair and Sa'd Ibn ` Ubadah ؓ withheld Sayyidna 'Ali's ؓ hand so that he might not rub the attributive title out. He should not write any appellation with his name other than the rasul [ Messenger ] of Allah. "If they do not accept it, then the sword will decide the matter" they said. Voices arose all around. Despite the fact that the Messenger of Allah was an Ummi who had never written before, took the document in his hand and wrote with his own pen the following preamble:

ھٰذا ما قضی محمد بن عبداللہ وسھیل بن عمر و اصلحا علی وضع الحرب عن النّاس عشر سنین یأ من فیہ النّاس ویکف بعضھم عن بعض

"This is the Treaty into which Muhammad the Son of ` Abdull and Suhail Ibn ` Amr entered. They agree that war shall be suspended for ten years, during which time people would be able to live peacefully and no party would indulge in any hostility against the other."

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ wanted that the treaty should have a clause to the effect that the Muslims would not be hindered from performing tawaf that year, but Suhail swore by God to say that it was not possible. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ conceded that to him. Suhail then inserted his own clause: if a Makkan [ even if he is a believer ] were to go over to Muhammad without his guardian's permission, he shall be sent back to his guardian; but should any of Muhammad 's followers return to the Quraish, he shall not be sent back. At this, the common Muslims raised their voices and exclaimed that it was not tolerable to send one of their own Muslim brethren back to the pagans. However, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ accepted this clause as well, and explained that if any of the believers is gone over to the Quraish of his own accord, Allah has distanced him from the Muslims, and they should not bother about him. If any of their men comes over to the Muslims and they send him back to the pagans, Allah will pave the way for him.

Sayyidna Bara' ؓ summarises that the Treaty contained three clauses: [ 1] If anyone during that period from among the Quraish went over to the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، without his guardian's permission, he would return him to them; [ 2] if a Companion of the Holy Prophet ﷺ came over to the Quraish, they would not return him; and [ 3] the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، together with his men, should retire that year, and visit Makkah the following year only for three days to perform ` Umrah, but they shall carry no arms save sheathed swords. Towards the end of the Treaty, the concluding statement was appended: "This Agreement between the people of Makkah and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ is a guarded document which none shall violate. Whosoever would like to join the Holy Prophet ﷺ and make himself a party to the Treaty from his side, shall have the liberty to do so; and likewise whosoever would like to join the Quraish and make himself a party to the Treaty from their side, shall have the liberty to do so.

As soon as this proclamation was made, Banu Khuza'ah jumped at the opportunity, and entered into alliance with the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، but Banu Bakr, on the other hand, sided with the Quraish and allied themselves with them.

Terms and Provisions of the Treaty Upset the Companions

The Muslims were noticeably perturbed over the terms of the Treaty that were apparently tilted against their interests. Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ exclaimed in extreme grief and indignation: "0 Messenger of Allah! are you not the True Prophet of Allah?" He replied: "Why not!" Then Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ asked: "Are we not on the right path and they on the wrong?" He replied: "Why not!" Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ asked: "Is it not a fact that our martyrs are in the Paradise and their slain ones in the Fire?" He replied: "Why not!" Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ then said: "Why should we submit to this humiliation and return without observing ` Umrah or Allah decides the matter through war?" The Messenger of Allah ﷺ replied: "I am the servant of Allah and His Messenger. I can never violate His command. He will never destroy me. He is my Helper. Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ posed more questions to the Prophet ﷺ : "0 Messenger of Allah! did you not promise us that we would visit Allah's House and perform tawaf?" He replied: "Yes, indeed, I did promise, but did I promise that it will happen this year?" Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ replied: "No, you did not promise that." The Messenger of Allah ﷺ responded: "The event will definitely happen as I promised. You will visit the House and perform the tawaf."

Sayyidna ` Umar Ibn Khattab ؓ kept quiet, but his grief and indignation did not subside. After the Messenger of Allah ﷺ ، he went to Sayyidna Abu Bakr ؓ and repeated his questions to him as he had posed them to the Holy Prophet ﷺ . He replied that the Prophet ﷺ is the servant of Allah and His Messenger. He is not at liberty to violate any Divine decree. Allah is his Helper. Therefore, hold on to his stirrup until the last breath of your life. By Allah! he is on the path of Truth. In short, Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ was in intense grief and pain because of the seemingly unfavourable terms and provisions of the Treaty. In fact, he is reported to have said: " I never gave way to doubt since I embraced Islam, but on this occasion I could not avoid it." (Transmitted by Bukhari) Sayyidna Abu ` Ubaidah ؓ allayed his misgivings and suggested to seek refuge with Allah from the evils of Shaitan. Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ said: "I seek refuge in Allah from the evils of the Shaitan." He says that since he realised his misgivings, he continued to observe voluntary prayers, keep voluntary fasts, emancipate slaves and give alms, so that Allah may pardon his error.

The Case of Abu Jandal: The Prophet's ﷺ Commitment to the Treaty

The terms and provisions of the Treaty had just been concluded, and Companions ؓ were still grieving over them. Suhail Ibn ` Amr was the chief negotiator on behalf of Quraish. Abu Jandal was Suhail's son. He embraced Islam and was imprisoned by his father. He used to persecute him harshly; fetters were put about his ankles; and there were signs of violence on his body. He could not bear the persecution, so somehow he managed to escape to the Holy Prophet ﷺ and sought asylum. Some of the Muslims went forward and granted him the asylum. Suhail yelled out: "This is the first instance of the violation of a proviso of the Treaty. If he is not returned, I shall never accept any of the other provisions in the document". The Holy Prophet ﷺ had already entered into the Treaty and was bound by its terms and provisions, therefore he called Abu Jandal and asked him to be patient for a little while longer. Soon Allah will pave the way for him and other helpless Muslims, who are detained in Makkah, to live in easier circumstances and in a peaceful atmosphere. This case of Abu Jandal really rubbed salt into the wound or added fuel to the fire. The Companions ؓ were sure that Makkah will be conquered instantaneously, but when they experienced the apparently unfavourable situation, their grief and disappointment knew no bounds. They were on the brink of disaster and ruination. However, the Treaty was concluded, and on behalf of the Muslims Abu Bakr, ` Umar, ` Abdur-Rahman Ibn ` Awf, ` Abdullah Ibn Suhail Ibn ` Umar, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, Muhammad Ibn Maslamah, ` Ali Ibn Abi Talib and others رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہم had appended their signatures. Likewise on behalf of the idolaters, Suhail and a few others appended their signatures.

Putting Off the Pilgrim-Garb and Slaughtering the Sacrificial Animals

When the document was finalised, the Holy Prophet ﷺ addressed the Companions ؓ ، and asked them to slaughter their sacrificial animals in that very place, shave their heads and put off the pilgrim-robes, but they were so overwhelmed by grief that no one moved from his position to comply. This depressed the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، and he went up to his blessed wife Umm Salamah ؓ and expressed his grief to her. She gave him the most apt advice, saying: "Do not reprimand them at this time, because they are acutely grieved by the terms of the Treaty and by returning without observing ` Umrah. Call the barber in the presence of all, and get your own head shaved, put off your pilgrim-garb and slaughter your own camel." He followed her advice. When the Companions ؓ saw this, they followed suit. They started shaving each other's head, slaughtered their animals and put off their pilgrim-robes. The Holy Prophet ﷺ earnestly supplicated for all.

The Holy Prophet ﷺ stayed on the plain of Hudaibiyah for nineteen days and, according to other versions, twenty days. He then started his return journey. With his Companions ؓ he ﷺ first went to Marr Zahran, and then arrived in ` Usfan. When they reached here, their provisions were depleted: very little food and water had been left for them. The Holy Prophet ﷺ spread a dining-sheet and asked everyone to put the little they had on the sheet. In this way the left-overs were collected on the sheet. There were 1400 people: they all sat around the sheet, the Holy Prophet ﷺ supplicated and asked them to eat. The noble Companions ؓ report that 1400 people ate to the full and in addition they filled their bowls - yet nothing had diminished. This was the Holy Prophet's ﷺ second miracle that appeared on this plain. The Holy Prophet ﷺ ، seeing this, was highly delighted.

The Noble Companions' Strength of Faith and Obedience of the Holy Prophet ﷺ Tested Once Again

It was noticed in the foregoing sections that the Companions ؓ were extremely unhappy at the terms and provisions of the Treaty. They found it even more difficult and painful to return without performing ` Umrah or fighting a war. It was their strength of faith that despite all odds and the awkward situations they persisted in their faith in and obedience of the Holy Prophet ﷺ . On his way back from Hudaibiyah, at Kura'-ul-Ghamim Surah Al-Fath was revealed which the Prophet ﷺ recited to the blessed Companions ؓ . Despite the terms and provisions of the Treaty and returning home without ` Umrah wounding their hearts, this Surah calls the trip "a manifest Victory". Sayyidna ` Umar ؓ could hardly contain himself and inquired: "Messenger of Allah! is this 'victory'?" He replied: "By Him in whose Hand is my life, this is indeed 'a manifest Victory'!" The noble Companions ؓ submitted to him and thus were assured that it was "a manifest Victory".

The Effects and Advantages of the Treaty

One immediate effect of this Treaty was that the misplaced obstinacy of Quraish and their followers became manifest, and a schism arose among themselves, and they were divided into different groups as a result of differences in thinking and attitudes. Budail Ibn Warqa' separated himself with his comrades from the Quraish. Following his example, ` Urwah Ibn Masud separated with his group.

Secondly, the Quraish of Makkah were highly impressed by the unparalleled self-sacrifice of the noble Companions ؓ . They were also profoundly touched by the unwavering obedience of, and love and reverence for, the Holy Prophet ﷺ . This inclined them to make peace. This was an ideal opportunity for them to wipe out the Muslims, because they were at home with all its conveniences, and the Muslims were on a journey with all its inconveniences. The Quraish had captured all the water spots, whereas the Muslims had to occupy waterless spots - lacking in foodstuffs. They were in full force, whereas the Musims were ill-equipped in weaponry. Allah infused terror into their hearts. Many members of their group had the opportunity to meet and mingle with the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، as a result the cheerfulness of Islamic faith was infused into their hearts. Later on they embraced it.

Thirdly, the Peace Treaty made the road safe and secure. The way was opened for the Holy Prophet ﷺ and the blessed Companions ؓ to call the people towards Islam. Arab delegations visited the Holy Prophet ﷺ . The blessed Companions ؓ ، together with the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، spread Islam rapidly in every nook and corner. Letters were sent to the rulers of the world - inviting them to the call of Islam. Some of the prominent rulers were impressed. On the occasion of Hudaibiyah, there were not more than 1500 Muslims with him, despite the Holy Prophet's ﷺ general invitation for all Muslims to join him to observe ` Umrah. But after the Treaty, people entered Allah's religion in throngs. In the year 7 Hijri Khaibar was conquered, and considerable amount of booty fell into the hands of the Muslims. This strengthened their material power. Hardly two years had passed during which time an unprecedented large number of people joined the Islamic camp. When the Quraish violated the terms of the Treaty, the Holy Prophet ﷺ secretly started preparing for the conquest of Makkah. The Quraish came to know about this, and were unnerved. They sent Abu Sufyan to apologise and to negotiate the renewal of the Treaty, but the Holy Prophet ﷺ refused. As a result of violation by the Quraish of the terms of the Treaty, the Holy Prophet ﷺ within twenty-one months marched towards Makkah with ten thousand strong faithful soldiers of Allah. The Quraish were so overwhelmingly subdued that no fighting took place. There are differing views among the leading jurists whether Makkah was conquered by force of arms or by peaceful means. Nevertheless while in Makkah, the Holy Prophet ﷺ had the following announcement made: "Whoever shuts his door shall be safe; whoever enters the mosque shall be safe; whoever enters Abu Sufyan's house shall be safe." This announcement made them concerned about saving themselves. This, on the part of the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، was a master-stroke of political sagacity, strategy and ingenuity. As a result, no fighting took place. In sum, Makkah was conquered easily and very comfortably. Thus the Holy Prophet's" ﷺ vision turned into a reality. The Companions ؓ fearlessly performed the tawaf of the House, then had their heads shaved or cut short, the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، together with his Companions ؓ ، then entered the Ka'bah where he received its keys. At that moment, the Holy Prophet ﷺ addressed Sayyidna ` Umar Ibn al-Khattab ؓ in particular and other Companions ؓ in general, saying: "This is the incident that I have been narrating to you." On the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Holy Prophet ﷺ repeated his address to Sayyidna ` Umar Ibn Khattab ؓ who replied: "Undoubtedly there is no better and greater 'Victory' than the Treaty of Hudaibiyah." Sayyidna Abu Bakr ؓ believed from the very outset that the Treaty of Hudaibiyah was indeed the 'Victory', but people did not have the insight and foresight to discern the reality that was determined between Allah and His Messenger ﷺ . Allah does not do anything because of people's impatience. Instead, He does what His wisdom demands that everything should take place at the right moment. Therefore, 'a manifest Victory' in this Surah refers to the Treaty of Hudaibiyah.

These were the most important elements of the event of Hudaibiyah. This will facilitate the understanding of forthcoming verses of this Surah.

English Translation

That Allah may forgive for you what preceded of your sin and what will follow and complete His favor upon you and guide you to a straight path

English Transliteration

Liyaghfira laka Allahu ma taqaddama min thanbika wama taakhkhara wayutimma niAAmatahu AAalayka wayahdiyaka siratan mustaqeeman

Analysis of Verses

لِّيَغْفِرَ‌ لَكَ اللَّـهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ‌ (so that Allah may forgive you of your previous and subsequent faults...." - 48:2). If the particle "lam" (translated above as 'so that' ) is taken to be for "ta'lil", it indicates the purpose for which, and the reason why, such a manifest Victory is given to the Holy Prophet ﷺ . It is mentioned in this verse that the victory was given to him to bless him with three different bounties. The first bounty is forgiveness of all his past and future shortcomings. Attention was drawn in Surah Muhammad that all Prophets (علیہم السلام) are infallible. Wherever words likes ذَنب dhanb and عصیان ` isyan ('sin' or 'fault' ) are attributed to them in the Qur'an, they are in relation to their lofty status. Works that are merely unadvisable contrary to the preferred practice are also referred to as dhanb in relation to the high status of the Prophets (علیہم السلام) by way of reprimand. 'Previous' refers to shortcomings committed before conferment of prophethood, and 'subsequent' refers to shortcomings committed after the conferment of prophethood (Mazhari). The reason why this victory caused forgiveness for such shortcomings is that large masses of people entered the fold of Islam after it, and naturally the credit of spreading the call of Islam goes to the Holy Prophet ﷺ for which he deserved the divine reward, and an increase in reward always entails forgiveness of the shortcomings.

وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَ‌اطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا ("...and may guide you to a straight path," 48:2.) This is the second bounty which resulted from the manifest victory. Here arises a question of the highest significance: The Holy Prophet was established in the right path from the very outset. Not only was he himself on the right path, but also a source of guidance for the entire world. His night-and-day preoccupation was to call the people towards the Straight Path. So what then is the meaning of guidance to the straight path through manifest victory in the 6th year of Hijrah? A detailed answer to this question can be found in Ma’ ariful-Qur an Vol 1/pp 71-81 - particularly look at the definitions and the three degrees of Hidayah [ guidance ].

Definition of Hidayah

Hidayah has been defined as to show the path or to lead someone gently and kindly towards his destination. The real destination of man is to attain Allah's pleasure and his proximity. The degrees of pleasure and proximity are unlimited. Having attained the first degree, man needs to go for the next one, then he should aim for the third one and so on to no end. Not any man, Muslim, saint or prophet is above the need of such spiritual and moral attainment. Therefore, the instruction to pray for right guidance in the first Surah is not only to the Muslim Community, but also to the Holy Prophet ﷺ . He is to soar higher and higher in the path of spiritual and moral attainment. Allah has, in this manifest victory, raised the Holy Prophet ﷺ to the highest pinnacles of spiritual eminence which is described by the clause yahdiyaka.

English Translation

And [that] Allah may aid you with a mighty victory.

English Transliteration

Wayansuraka Allahu nasran AAazeezan

وَيَنصُرَ‌كَ اللَّـهُ نَصْرً‌ا عَزِيزًا (and so that Allah may support you with a mighty support - 48:3.) This is the third bounty which follows naturally from the preceding circumstance of the manifest victory. The Holy Prophet has always had help from Allah, but on this occasion he received a very large share.

English Translation

It is He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their [present] faith. And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth, and ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.

English Transliteration

Huwa allathee anzala alssakeenata fee quloobi almumineena liyazdadoo eemanan maAAa eemanihim walillahi junoodu alssamawati waalardi wakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeeman

Bounties of Allah upon the Participants of Hudaibiyah

In the first three verses of this Surah, reference was made to Allah's particular bounties bestowed upon the Holy Prophet ﷺ in the wake of the manifest victory. Some of the participants of Hudaibiyah congratulating the Holy Prophet ﷺ ، asked him that the favours are conferred exclusively upon him, but what is there in it for them? In response to this query, verses 4-7 were revealed. They distinctly refer to the good graces of Allah upon the participants of Hudaibiyah and the Pledge of Ridwan. These favours were generously bestowed upon them because of faith in, and obedience to, the Holy Prophet ﷺ . All believers whose faith and obedience are complete and perfect will receive similar good graces of Allah.

English Translation

[And] that He may admit the believing men and the believing women to gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein eternally and remove from them their misdeeds - and ever is that, in the sight of Allah, a great attainment -

English Transliteration

Liyudkhila almumineena waalmuminati jannatin tajree min tahtiha alanharu khalideena feeha wayukaffira AAanhum sayyiatihim wakana thalika AAinda Allahi fawzan AAatheeman

English Translation

And [that] He may punish the hypocrite men and hypocrite women, and the polytheist men and polytheist women - those who assume about Allah an assumption of evil nature. Upon them is a misfortune of evil nature; and Allah has become angry with them and has cursed them and prepared for them Hell, and evil it is as a destination.

English Transliteration

WayuAAaththiba almunafiqeena waalmunafiqati waalmushrikeena waalmushrikati alththanneena biAllahi thanna alssawi AAalayhim dairatu alssawi waghadiba Allahu AAalayhim walaAAanahum waaAAadda lahum jahannama wasaat maseeran

English Translation

And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

English Transliteration

Walillahi junoodu alssamawati waalardi wakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeeman

English Translation

Indeed, We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner

English Transliteration

Inna arsalnaka shahidan wamubashshiran wanatheeran

Injunctions and Related Considerations

In the preceding verses, Allah referred to the favours he bestowed generously upon the Holy Prophet ﷺ and his Ummah, especially upon those who participated in the pledge of Ridwan. The Bestower of the favours is Allah and the medium is the Holy Prophet ﷺ . Therefore, in the current set of verses, the right of the Holy Prophet ﷺ and the obligation of the Ummah to honour and revere him is entrenched. First, three attributes of the Holy Prophet ﷺ are referred to: shahid, mubashshir, nadhir. Shahid means 'witness' and its sense here is the same as that of shahid which occurs in [ 4:41].

. فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ شَهِيدًا

"How would it, then, be when We shall bring a witness from every community and shall bring you over them as a witness.

Both forms of the word mean "a witness". Every Prophet (علیہ السلام) will bear testimony to the fact that he has delivered Allah's message to his particular community - some accepted and others rejected. See Ma` ariful Qur'an, Vol 2/pp 442-3 for details. Likewise the Holy Prophet ﷺ will bear witness for his community. Qurtubi writes under [ 4:41] that the prophets' testimony will be for the people of their respective time as to who accepted their call to the Truth and who defied it. Likewise the Holy Prophet's ﷺ testimony will be for the people of his particular time. Other scholars express the view that the Holy Prophet ﷺ will bear witness to the entire community's good and bad works, and to its obedience and defiance, because, according to some versions, angels present to the Holy Prophet ﷺ morning and evening the works of the community. Thus he is aware of the entire community's works.

Mubashshir and Nadhir: Mubashshir connotes bearer of good tidings and nadhir means a warner. That is to say, he gives glad tidings of Paradise to the believing and obedient sector of the community. On the other hand, he is a Warner to those who rejected the message - making them aware of the punishment of such defiance. Further, the purpose of sending the Messenger has been indicated - that is, to believe in Allah and his Messenger ﷺ . In addition, it is mentioned that the believers must be characterized by three more qualities:

[ 1] that they should "support him"

[ 2] "and revere him"; and

[ 3] "pronounce His (Allah's) purity morning and evening."

The first phrase contains a verb which is derived from the infinitive or verbal noun ta’ zir which denotes to help or support. Punishment is also called to ta’ zir because the idea underlying punishment is to give real help to the criminal by punishing him (Raghib: Mufradatul Qur’ an). The second phrase contains a verb which is derived from the infinitive or verbal noun tawqir which means to show reverence. The third phrase contains a verb which is derived from the infinitive or verbal noun tasbih which connotes to declare the purity of Allah. In this phrase, the third person anaphoric pronoun attached to the verb refers, by consensus of Qur'anic grammarians, to "Allah", and there can be no other possibility. Therefore, most of them believe that the third person anaphoric pronouns attached to the respective verbs of the first two phrases also refer to "Allah". From this point of view, the three phrases mean: believe in Allah and help His religion and His Messenger ﷺ ، revere Him and pronounce His purity.

Other scholars refer the third person anaphoric pronouns attached to the verbs of the first two phrases to the "Messenger". From this point of view, the phrases mean: Help the Messenger and revere him; and pronounce the purity of Allah. However, there is a third group of scholars who feel that in this interpretation there is intishar-ud-dama'ir or unconcentrated distribution of pronouns - leading to pronominal ambiguity and vagueness, and making it difficult to follow the meaning of the constructions which is not in conformity with the rules of Arabic rhetoric or ` ilm-ul-balaghah. Allah knows best.

After that, there is reference to the pledge of Ridwan which was narrated in part [ 10] of the story of Hudaibiyah. The purpose of the believers in entering into the pledge at the hands of the Holy Prophet ﷺ was to act upon the command of Allah and to receive His good pleasure. Therefore, when the blessed Companions ؓ placed their hands on the hand of the Holy Prophet ﷺ it was tantamount to taking the pledge at the hands of Allah. 'Allah's hand' is in any case something falling in the category of mutashabihat the correct nature of which is cannot be known to us, nor should we attempt to investigate its reality. The significance of the pledge of Ridwan is described later in the Surah. The word bai'ah, lexically, connotes a pledge to do some particular work. The ancient and traditional method of this pledge is for the pledging parties to place their hands upon each other, although the placing of hands is not a necessary condition. Nevertheless once the pledge is consummated, juristically it is binding, and its violation is unlawful. Therefore, it is later laid down that whoever violates the pledge will cause loss to himself. It will not cause loss to Allah and His Messenger ﷺ . Whoever fulfils the terms of the pledge will receive a mighty reward from Allah.

English Translation

That you [people] may believe in Allah and His Messenger and honor him and respect the Prophet and exalt Allah morning and afternoon.

English Transliteration

Lituminoo biAllahi warasoolihi watuAAazziroohu watuwaqqiroohu watusabbihoohu bukratan waaseelan